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Archive for September, 2012

ALTER DATABASE OPEN *RESETLOGS*

Posted by FatDBA on September 24, 2012

What is and why there is a need to open database in RESETLOGS mode ?

Answer:
Whenever you perform incomplete recovery or recovery with a backup control file, you must reset the online logs when you open the database.

– Archives the current online redo logs (if they are accessible) and then erases the contents of   the online redo logs and resets the log sequence number to 1.

– Reinitializes the control file metadata about online redo logs and redo threads.

– The RESETLOGS prevents you from corrupting datafiles with archived logs that are not from   direct parent incarnations of the current incarnation.

 
To reset the log sequence number when opening a database after recovery and thereby create a new incarnation of the database, execute the following statement:
ORA-01589: must use RESETLOGS or NORESETLOGS option for database open

SQL> alter database open resetlogs;
Database altered.

 

SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
Oldest online log sequence     0
Next log sequence to archive   1
Current log sequence           1

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Contol File Missing – Recovery (ORA-00205: error in identifying control file)

Posted by FatDBA on September 24, 2012

Today i intentionaly deleted one of three available Control File of one of the instance ‘orcl’. Below are the steps i performed to recover the lost DB Controlfile to bring back the Database up.

This is what i recieved in SQL command line when tried to start the effected the instance.
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  306184192 bytes
Fixed Size                  1219112 bytes
Variable Size             109053400 bytes
Database Buffers          192937984 bytes
Redo Buffers                2973696 bytes
ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info

Pre – Checks:
* First check if the entry is available in PFILE and check status of control_files paramter.
* Veify the Control Files entries in PFILE and supply changes to the spfile if discrepancies found by using create spfile/pfile statement.

Example Entry in an PFILE (INIT.ORA)
*.control_files=’/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl’,’/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl’,’/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control03.ctl’

SQL> show parameter control_files

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
———————————— ———– ——————————
control_file_record_keep_time        integer     7
control_files                        string      /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/c
ontrol01.ctl, /u01/app/oracle/
oradata/orcl/control02.ctl, /u
01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/con
trol03.ctl

* If you have ASM setup on the same machine, it is recommended that you should always check ASM state. It should be always running without any errors during startup (i.e. DISK Groups errors etc.) otherwise would cause issues while restoring/recovering files that are created using ASM signatures.

Scenario 1: Corrupt or Missing control file

When attempting to start the database you see the following error.

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SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area  849530880 bytes
Fixed Size                  1339824 bytes
Variable Size             528485968 bytes
Database Buffers          314572800 bytes
Redo Buffers                5132288 bytes
ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info
SQL>

Looking the alert log you see that the /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/ctl/control01.ctl is corrupt.

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ALTER DATABASE   MOUNT
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/ctl/control01.ctl'
ORA-27048: skgfifi: file header information is invalid
ORA-205 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE   MOUNT...
Mon Apr 26 10:11:23 2010
Checker run found 1 new persistent data failures
ORA-205 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE   MOUNT...

Or you may see the file is missing when looking in the alert log.

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ALTER DATABASE   MOUNT
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/ctl/control01.ctl'
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
Mon Apr 26 10:28:28 2010
Checker run found 1 new persistent data failures
ORA-205 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE   MOUNT...

In either case, to recover from this problem is simple and does not require going to the last backup provided your control files are multiplexed. To resolve this problem we simply copy a control file from one of the other locations.

Identify the control files:

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SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area  849530880 bytes
Fixed Size                  1339824 bytes
Variable Size             528485968 bytes
Database Buffers          314572800 bytes
Redo Buffers                5132288 bytes
ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info
SQL> show parameter control_files
NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
control_files                        string      /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/c
                                                 tl/control01.ctl, /u01/app/ora
                                                 cle/flash_recovery_area/orcl/c
                                                 ontrol02.ctl, /u03/app/oracle/
                                                 oradata/orcl/ctl/control03.ctl
SQL>

We know from the alert log that /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/ctl/control01.ctl is the control file that is having problems so we will copy the one from the /u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl and then mount and open the database.

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SQL> host
[oracle@ora1 ~]$ cp /u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/ctl/control01.ctl
[oracle@ora1 ~]$ exit
exit
SQL> alter database mount;
Database altered.
SQL> alter database open;
Database altered.
SQL>

By having a multiplexed copy of the control file we were able to recover from a corrupt or missing control file without having to go to a database backup.

Scenario 2: All control files are corrupt or missing

When starting the database we see the following error.

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SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area  849530880 bytes
Fixed Size                  1339824 bytes
Variable Size             528485968 bytes
Database Buffers          314572800 bytes
Redo Buffers                5132288 bytes
ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info
SQL>

In anticipation of restoring a control we get a list of the control file locations.

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SQL> show parameter control_files
NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
control_files                        string      /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/c
                                                 tl/control01.ctl, /u01/app/ora
                                                 cle/flash_recovery_area/orcl/c
                                                 ontrol02.ctl, /u03/app/oracle/
                                                 oradata/orcl/ctl/control03.ctl
SQL>

Looking at the alert log we see that none of the control files are available.

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ALTER DATABASE   MOUNT
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/ctl/control03.ctl'
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl'
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/ctl/control01.ctl'
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
ORA-205 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE   MOUNT...
Mon Apr 26 11:07:53 2010
Checker run found 2 new persistent data failures

Since all of the control files are missing we will need to restore them from a backup using RMAN.

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[oracle@ora1 ctl]$ rman
Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on Mon Apr 26 11:24:32 2010
Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.
RMAN> connect target /
connected to target database: ORCL (not mounted)
RMAN>

Currently none of the control files are mounted so RMAN does not know about the backups or any pre-configured RMAN settings. All settings are at their default.

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RMAN> show all;
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
RMAN configuration parameters for database with db_unique_name ORCL are:
CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 1; # default
CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION OFF; # default
CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK; # default
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP OFF; # default
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '%F'; # default
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 1 BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET; # default
CONFIGURE DATAFILE BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default
CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default
CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE TO UNLIMITED; # default
CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF; # default
CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES128'; # default
CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM 'BASIC' AS OF RELEASE 'DEFAULT' OPTIMIZE FOR LOAD TRUE ; # default
CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY TO NONE; # default
RMAN>

In order to use the backups we will need to tell RMAN the Database ID. If you do not have or know the database you have two options available.

Option 1: Shutdown the database and re-start it in RMAN

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SQL> shutdown immediate
ORA-01507: database not mounted
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> host
[oracle@ora1 ctl]$ rman
Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production on Mon Apr 26 11:30:49 2010
Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.
RMAN> connect target /
connected to target database (not started)
RMAN> startup
Oracle instance started
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of startup command at 04/26/2010 11:31:00
ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info

You will again receive an error stating that the control files could not be found. That is OK because in the next step we are going to restore them. Because the RMAN configuration is back to the default we are going to have to pass the entire path along with the file name of the latest control file autobackup to the restore control file command.

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RMAN> restore controlfile from '/u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/backup/c-1239150297-20100426-00';
Starting restore at 26-APR-10
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=20 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring control file
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
output file name=/u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/ctl/control01.ctl
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl
output file name=/u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/ctl/control03.ctl
Finished restore at 26-APR-10
RMAN>

After restoring the control files we can see mount the database.

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RMAN> alter database mount;
database mounted
released channel: ORA_DISK_1
RMAN>

Now that the database has been mounted we can see that our custom RMAN settings are back.

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RMAN> show all;
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
RMAN configuration parameters for database with db_unique_name ORCL are:
CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 1;
CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION OFF; # default
CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK; # default
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP ON;
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '/u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/backup/%F';
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 2 BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET;
CONFIGURE DATAFILE BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default
CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default
CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT   '/u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/backup/%U' MAXPIECESIZE 2 G;
CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE TO UNLIMITED; # default
CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF; # default
CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES128'; # default
CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM 'BASIC' AS OF RELEASE 'DEFAULT' OPTIMIZE FOR LOAD TRUE ; # default
CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY TO BACKED UP 1 TIMES TO 'SBT_TAPE';
CONFIGURE SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME TO '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/dbs/snapcf_orcl.f'; # default
RMAN>

Now it would appear we are ready to open the database.

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RMAN> alter database open;
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of alter db command at 04/26/2010 11:38:40
ORA-01589: must use RESETLOGS or NORESETLOGS option for database open
RMAN>

We just restored the control files. In order to open the database we have to use the RESETLOGS option.

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RMAN> alter database open resetlogs;
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of alter db command at 04/26/2010 11:39:08
ORA-01152: file 1 was not restored from a sufficiently old backup
ORA-01110: data file 1: '/u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf'
RMAN>

The restored control files are older than the data files. Hence in this case we need to restore the database.

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RMAN> restore database;
Starting restore at 26-APR-10
using channel ORA_DISK_1
using channel ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00003 to /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00005 to /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00006 to /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/test.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/backup/1olc324t_1_1
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: restoring datafile 00004 to /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_2: reading from backup piece /u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/backup/1plc326b_1_1
channel ORA_DISK_2: piece handle=/u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/backup/1plc326b_1_1 tag=TAG20100426T092133
channel ORA_DISK_2: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_2: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_2: restoring datafile 00001 to /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_2: restoring datafile 00002 to /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_2: restoring datafile 00007 to /u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/dbfs01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_2: reading from backup piece /u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/backup/1nlc324t_1_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/backup/1olc324t_1_1 tag=TAG20100426T092133
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:34
channel ORA_DISK_2: piece handle=/u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/backup/1nlc324t_1_1 tag=TAG20100426T092133
channel ORA_DISK_2: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_2: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:02:09
Finished restore at 26-APR-10
RMAN>

Next we recover the database.

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RMAN> recover database;
Starting recover at 26-APR-10
using channel ORA_DISK_1
using channel ORA_DISK_2
starting media recovery
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 13 is already on disk as file /u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo/red01_b.log
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 14 is already on disk as file /u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo/redo02.log
archived log file name=/u03/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo/red01_b.log thread=1 sequence=13
archived log file name=/u02/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo/redo02.log thread=1 sequence=14
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:02
Finished recover at 26-APR-10
RMAN>

Now that the database has been restored and recovered we can finally open the database, again with the RESETLOGS option.

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RMAN> alter database open resetlogs;
database opened
RMAN>

I think after seeing what is required to restore the control files you will agree that multiplexing the control files is a good thing to do.

* Thanks Dilip Kumar Singh for highlighting the errors in the post and helped me to rectify 🙂

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Data Guard: ORA-16789: missing standby redo logs

Posted by FatDBA on September 17, 2012

Error message while changing ‘logxptmode’ using DGMGRL CLI on Primary Database:

DGMGRL> edit database ‘orcl’ set property ‘logxptmode’=’SYNC’;
edit database ‘orcl’ set property ‘logxptmode’=’SYNC’;
Error: ORA-16789: missing standby redo logs
Solution:
As it is clearly asking about missing standby redo logs, Hence we have to create a redo log entry for standby

SQL> alter database add standby logfile (‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/log1.rdo’) size 20m;

Database altered.

DGMGRL> edit database orcl set property logxptmode=”SYNC”;
edit database orcl set property logxptmode=”SYNC”;
Property “logxptmode” updated

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Data Guard – Error

Posted by FatDBA on September 14, 2012

ERROR MESSAGE recieved while enabling Primary Database:

DGMGRL> enable database qrcl;
enable database qrcl;
Warning: ORA-16614: object has an ancestor that is disabled
Working to find the resolution of the problem. Answers Soon!!!

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SYNC Vs ASYNC (Data Guard – Logxptmode)

Posted by FatDBA on September 14, 2012

Data Guard synchronous (SYNC) vs asynchronous (ASYNC) modes

Oracle Data Guard redo log transport offers synchronous log transport mode (LogXptMode = ‘SYNC’) or asynchronous log transport mode (LogXptMode = ‘ASYNC’).  Systems with a network bottleneck would get better overall response time with the ASYNC mode, while shops that cannot tolerate a stale standby server (i.e. maximum availability or maximum protection are best with the SYNC mode.

The difference is all about when the COMMIT happens.

LogXptMode = (‘SYNC‘):  As the name implies, SYNC mode synchronizes the primary with the standby database and all DML on the primary server will NOT be committed until the logs have been successfully transported to the standby servers.  The synchronous log transport mode is required for the Maximum Protection and Maximum Availability data protection modes.
LogXptMode = (‘ASYNC‘):  Conversely, asynchronous mode (ASYNC) allows updates (DML) to be committed on the primary server before the log file arrives on the standby servers.  The asynchronous log transport mode is required for the Maximum Performance data protection mode.

To check status of log export mode on database.

DGMGRL> show database qrcl logxptmode;
show database qrcl logxptmode;
LogXptMode = ‘ASYNC’
DGMGRL>

To edit logxptmode:

DGMGRL> edit database ‘qrcl’ set property ‘logxptmode’=’ASYNC’;
edit database ‘qrcl’ set property ‘logxptmode’=’ASYNC’;
Property “logxptmode” updated

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What are Oracle Managed File (OMF) ?

Posted by FatDBA on September 11, 2012

What are Oracle-Managed Files?
Using Oracle-managed files simplifies the administration of an Oracle database. Oracle-managed files eliminate the need for you, the DBA, to directly manage the operating system files comprising an Oracle database. You specify operations in terms of database objects rather than filenames.

– Provides default location, name and size
– OMF is still optional. Normal file creation techniques still available

Oracle internally uses standard file system interfaces to create and delete files as needed for the following database structures:

Tablespaces
Online redo log files
Control files

First you have to enable OMF by altering parameter db_create_file_dest.
Example:
SQL> show parameter db_create

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
———————————— ———– ——————————
db_create_file_dest                  string

Here i’m trying to create a tablespace with name ‘tb1’ but you’ll recieve error message asking you to provide DATAFILE/TEMPFILE clause.

SQL> create tablespace tbi;
create tablespace tbi
                    *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02199: missing DATAFILE/TEMPFILE clause
Alter parameter db_create_file_dest.
SQL> alter system set db_create_file_dest=’/u01/app/oracle/oradata/’ scope=both;

System altered.
SQL> show parameter db_create_file_dest;

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
———————————— ———– ——————————
db_create_file_dest                  string      /u01/app/oracle/oradata/

Let’s try to create Tablespace in same fashion we tried earlier.
SQL> create tablespace tb1;

Tablespace created.
Done.

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ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file (Error)

Posted by FatDBA on September 11, 2012

Today while working i mistakenly deleted one DataFile which is of no use and was not part of any backup as well. I was happy and was good until i started recieving a weird error which is related with this old Datafile which i’ve already deleted from my Database Box and it not allowing me to start the DB instance and throwing errors:

 

[oracle@localhost ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.1.0 – Production on Tue Sep 11 09:57:30 2012

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options

ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 11 – see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 11: ‘/u01/appwiz.dbf’
So it clearly says that it’s all because of that recent deletion of Data File 11 ‘Appwiz.dbf’ which triggered this problem.
Resolution: I’ve offline deleted that datafile (11) and tried starting the instance and finally

SQL> alter database datafile 11 offline drop;
Database altered.

SQL> alter database open;
Database altered.

SQL> select status from v$instance;

STATUS
————
OPEN

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RFS Process Missing – Alert Log Trace reads * Error in File sid_rfs_3724.trc *

Posted by FatDBA on September 4, 2012

Problem: If Alert Log File Reads – “Errors in file /u01/app/oracle/admin/qrcl/udump/qrcl_rfs_3724.trc” and RFS process is missing at the Standby end and you discovered difference in Archived Log Sequence.

Resolution: Export Archive logs from Primary DB side to Standby location and start recovery process on the Auxiliary end.

Exit managed recovery mode, add the logs, and then reinitiate managed recovery:

alter database recover managed standby database cancel;

[oracle@prashant1 2012_09_04]$ pwd
/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/QRCL/archivelog/2012_09_04
[oracle@prashant1 2012_09_04]$ scp * oracle@prashant2:/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery
oracle@prashant2’s password:
o1_mf_1_293_84d32nq5_.arc
o1_mf_1_294_84d32qfx_.arc
o1_mf_1_295_84d3gr6s_.arc
o1_mf_1_296_84d3gz6b_.arc
o1_mf_1_297_84d3wt62_.arc
o1_mf_1_298_84d3x749_.arc
o1_mf_1_299_84d45g5x_.arc
o1_mf_1_300_84d52r4t_.arc
o1_mf_1_301_84d61r6n_.arc
o1_mf_1_302_84d61scr_.arc
o1_mf_1_303_84d61zfd_.arc
o1_mf_1_304_84d62c0v_.arc alter database recover managed standby database disconnect;

Start the managed recovery operation:
SQL> ALTER DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED STANDBY DATABASE DISCONNECT FROM SESSION;

 

Recheck Log Sequence and Status/Process from v$Managed_standby and you’ll find the RFS process back again along with ARCH & MRP/MRP0.

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