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Posts Tagged ‘optimization’

No Hint, No Degree, No Auto-DOP, Why my query is going for the parallelism ?

Posted by FatDBA on December 16, 2022

Recently I was working on a performance problem where customer reported few of their SQL statements going for parallelism even when they are not forcing DOP via any HINT, and all of the referenced table and underlying Indexes were with degree=1

I was asked to take a look, and I immediately checked if Auto DOP was the reason forcing unwanted parallelism, but parallel_degree_policy was set to MANUAL which means the auto DOP, statement queuing and in-memory parallel execution all were disabled.

SQL> show parameter parallel_degree_policy

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
parallel_degree_policy               string      MANUAL

Next, I thought to verify Table and Indexes general stats or details and I queried DBA_TABLES & DBA_INDEXES for Instances column, and found one of the table was set to value ‘DEFAULT’. If we have a value of DEFAULT set for INSTANCES, it will always force the query use DEFAULT degree of parallelism.

Let me explain the impact of having DEFAULT value for Instances, and how it forces SQL to spawn parallelism. For demo purpose, I am going to create a test table and an index with INSTANCES value set to DEFAULT.

[oracle@oracleontario ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 19.0.0.0.0 - Production on Mon Dec 19 08:23:12 2022
Version 19.15.0.0.0

Copyright (c) 1982, 2022, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


SQL> create table fatdba_table as select * from dba_objects;

Table created.

SQL>
SQL> select count(*) from fatdba_table;

  COUNT(*)
----------
     74932

SQL>

SQL> create index fatdba_table_idx on fatdba_table(OBJECT_TYPE,object_name) parallel(DEGREE 1 INSTANCES DEFAULT);

Index created.

SQL>
SQL> select index_name,degree,instances from dba_indexes where index_name='FATDBA_TABLE_IDX';

INDEX_NAME                     DEGREE                                   INSTANCES
------------------------------ ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
FATDBA_TABLE_IDX               1                                        DEFAULT

SQL>

Alright the stage is set, lets run a SQL statement and force it to use that Index and see its impact on the execution.

SQL> explain plan for select /*+ index_ffs(fatdba_table,fatdba_table_idx) */ count(distinct object_name) from fatdba_table 
where OBJECT_TYPE='TABLE';

Explained.

SQL> set linesize 400 pagesize 400
SQL> select * from table(dbms_xplan.display) ;

PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1154043599

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                     | Name             | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |    TQ  |IN-OUT| PQ Distrib |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT              |                  |     1 |    66 |   157   (1)| 00:00:01 |        |      |            |
|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE               |                  |     1 |    66 |            |          |        |      |            |
|   2 |   PX COORDINATOR              |                  |       |       |            |          |        |      |            |
|   3 |    PX SEND QC (RANDOM)        | :TQ10001         |     1 |    66 |            |          |  Q1,01 | P->S | QC (RAND)  |
|   4 |     SORT AGGREGATE            |                  |     1 |    66 |            |          |  Q1,01 | PCWP |            |
|   5 |      VIEW                     | VW_DAG_0         |  1558 |   100K|   157   (1)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,01 | PCWP |            |
|   6 |       HASH GROUP BY           |                  |  1558 | 68552 |   157   (1)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,01 | PCWP |            |
|   7 |        PX RECEIVE             |                  |  1561 | 68684 |   156   (0)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,01 | PCWP |            |
|   8 |         PX SEND HASH          | :TQ10000         |  1561 | 68684 |   156   (0)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,00 | P->P | HASH       |
|   9 |          PX BLOCK ITERATOR    |                  |  1561 | 68684 |   156   (0)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,00 | PCWC |            |
|* 10 |           INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| FATDBA_TABLE_IDX |  1561 | 68684 |   156   (0)| 00:00:01 |  Q1,00 | PCWP |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

  10 - filter("OBJECT_TYPE"='TABLE')

22 rows selected.

SQL>

As expected, it forced SQL to go with parallelism. Let me set INSTANCE value of the Index to 1 and see what happens next.

SQL> alter index FATDBA_TABLE_IDX noparallel;

Index altered.

SQL> select index_name,degree,instances from dba_indexes where index_name='FATDBA_TABLE_IDX';


INDEX_NAME                     DEGREE                                   INSTANCES
------------------------------ ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
FATDBA_TABLE_IDX               1                                        1

SQL> SQL>


SQL> select index_name,degree,instances from dba_indexes where index_name='FATDBA_TABLE_IDX';


INDEX_NAME                     DEGREE                                   INSTANCES
------------------------------ ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
FATDBA_TABLE_IDX               1                                        1

SQL> SQL> explain plan for select /*+ index_ffs(fatdba_table,fatdba_table_idx) */ count(distinct object_name) 
from fatdba_table where OBJECT_TYPE='TABLE';

Explained.

SQL> select * from table(dbms_xplan.display) ;

PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 3184007477

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation               | Name             | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT        |                  |     1 |    66 |   157   (1)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE         |                  |     1 |    66 |            |          |
|   2 |   VIEW                  | VW_DAG_0         |  1558 |   100K|   157   (1)| 00:00:01 |
|   3 |    HASH GROUP BY        |                  |  1558 | 68552 |   157   (1)| 00:00:01 |
|*  4 |     INDEX FAST FULL SCAN| FATDBA_TABLE_IDX |  1561 | 68684 |   156   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   4 - filter("OBJECT_TYPE"='TABLE')

16 rows selected.

And no parallelism was used after set the value of INSTANCES to 1.

Hope It Helped!
Prashant Dixit

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Differences I have noticed in the Query Block Registry section of an execution plan between Oracle 19c and 21c

Posted by FatDBA on October 10, 2022

Hi Guys,

Todays post is a quick one about the difference that I have noticed in one of the extended execution plan section ‘Query block registry‘ between Oracle 19c (19.8) and Oracle 21c (21.3). I am not going to explain about query blocks etc. here as I’ve already made few blog posts on those topics in the past, this one is about the difference that you will observe between two said database versions for QBR section in execution plans.

First I am going to use the option/flag ‘qbregistry‘ (for Query block registry info) in Oracle database version 19.16, and next will repeat same steps in Oracle 21.3. Query block registy information can also be collect from the 10053 optimizer traces, but I always notice that one’s there in CBO traces are more repetitive that what you see as a concise version through execution plans with ‘qbregistry‘ option.

So, I have already set the playground, for testing purpose, created two sample tables and have written two outer join queries. One for each table. Then combining the results of these using union all.

--
-- In Oracle 19.16 Database
--
SQL*Plus: Release 19.0.0.0.0 - Production on Sun Oct 9 03:17:19 2022
Version 19.8.0.0.0

SQL> explain plan for select /*+ GATHER_PLAN_STATISTICS */ *
from   toys, bricks
where  toy_id = brick_id (+)
union all
select *
from   toys, bricks
where  toy_id (+) = brick_id
and    toy_id is null;  

Explained.


SQL> select * from table(dbms_xplan.display('PLAN_TABLE',NULL,'+alias +outline +qbregistry'));

PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 731550672

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation            | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT     |        |     6 |   354 |     8   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  UNION-ALL           |        |       |       |            |          |
|*  2 |   HASH JOIN OUTER    |        |     3 |   177 |     4   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   3 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL | TOYS   |     3 |    96 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   4 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL | BRICKS |     3 |    81 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  5 |   FILTER             |        |       |       |            |          |
|*  6 |    HASH JOIN OUTER   |        |     3 |   177 |     4   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   7 |     TABLE ACCESS FULL| BRICKS |     3 |    81 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   8 |     TABLE ACCESS FULL| TOYS   |     3 |    96 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Query Block Name / Object Alias (identified by operation id):
-------------------------------------------------------------

   1 - SET$1
   2 - SEL$1
   3 - SEL$1 / TOYS@SEL$1
   4 - SEL$1 / BRICKS@SEL$1
   5 - SEL$2
   7 - SEL$2 / BRICKS@SEL$2
   8 - SEL$2 / TOYS@SEL$2

Outline Data
-------------

  /*+
      BEGIN_OUTLINE_DATA
      USE_HASH(@"SEL$1" "BRICKS"@"SEL$1")
      LEADING(@"SEL$1" "TOYS"@"SEL$1" "BRICKS"@"SEL$1")
      FULL(@"SEL$1" "BRICKS"@"SEL$1")
      FULL(@"SEL$1" "TOYS"@"SEL$1")
      USE_HASH(@"SEL$2" "TOYS"@"SEL$2")
      LEADING(@"SEL$2" "BRICKS"@"SEL$2" "TOYS"@"SEL$2")
      FULL(@"SEL$2" "TOYS"@"SEL$2")
      FULL(@"SEL$2" "BRICKS"@"SEL$2")
      OUTLINE_LEAF(@"SET$1")
      OUTLINE_LEAF(@"SEL$2")
      OUTLINE_LEAF(@"SEL$1")
      ALL_ROWS
      DB_VERSION('19.1.0')
      OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE('19.1.0')
      IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS
      END_OUTLINE_DATA
  */

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   2 - access("TOY_ID"="BRICK_ID"(+))
   5 - filter("TOY_ID" IS NULL)
   6 - access("TOY_ID"(+)="BRICK_ID")

Note
-----
   - dynamic statistics used: dynamic sampling (level=2)

Query Block Registry:
---------------------
<q o="2" f="y"><n><![CDATA[SET$1]]></n><f><h><t><![CDATA[NULL_HALIAS]]></t><s><![CDATA[SET$1]]></s></h></f></q>
<q o="2" f="y"><n><![CDATA[SEL$1]]></n><f><h><t><![CDATA[BRICKS]]></t><s><![CDATA[SEL$1]]></s></h><h><t><![CDATA[TOYS]]></t><s><![CDATA[SEL$1]]> </s></h></f></q>
<q o="2" f="y"><n><![CDATA[SEL$2]]></n><f><h><t><![CDATA[BRICKS]]></t><s><![CDATA[SEL$2]]></s></h><h><t><![CDATA[TOYS]]></t><s><![CDATA[SEL$2]]> </s></h></f></q>

73 rows selected.

SQL>
SQL> 

Above ‘Query Block Registry’ XML translates to something like this
SET$1 NULL_HALIAS|SET$1
SEL$1 BRICKS|SEL$1|TOYS|SEL$1
SEL$2 BRICKS|SEL$2|TOYS|SEL$2

Considering we have a two SELECT statements, one for each table, internally optimizer has created two query blocks SEL$1 and SEL$2, one for each of the select. Here its using a hint alias name ‘NULL_HALIAS‘, and points to both of the two SELECT statements used in the original query.

Next, lets execute the same statement in Oracle 21c (21.3.0) version and see the difference in QBR section.

--
-- In Oracle 21.3 Database
--
-- Skipping few sections to have more clarity about discussed topic
SQL*Plus: Release 21.0.0.0.0 - Production on Sat Oct 8 23:57:12 2022
Version 21.3.0.0.0

SQL>  select * from table(dbms_xplan.display('PLAN_TABLE',NULL,'+alias +outline +qbregistry'));

PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 731550672
...
.....
Query Block Name / Object Alias (identified by operation id):
-------------------------------------------------------------

   1 - SET$1
   2 - SEL$1
   3 - SEL$1 / "TOYS"@"SEL$1"
   4 - SEL$1 / "BRICKS"@"SEL$1"
   5 - SEL$2
   7 - SEL$2 / "BRICKS"@"SEL$2"
   8 - SEL$2 / "TOYS"@"SEL$2"

Outline Data
-------------
......
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------
.....

Query Block Registry:
---------------------

  SEL$1 (PARSER) [FINAL]
  SEL$2 (PARSER) [FINAL]
  SET$1 (PARSER) [FINAL]

SQL>

Here with 21c (21.3), first thing is its no more coming in the form of an XML, The curious part out of the entire output is the ‘Query Block Registry‘ where the [FINAL] is the transformation that is chosen by the CBO. This assures that time was used on a query block which has been selected for an optimal plan.

That’s it, just a small tidbit this time! 🙂

Hope It Helped!
Prashant Dixit

Posted in Advanced, troubleshooting | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

What is a _FIX_CONTROL & DBMS_OPTIM_BUNDLE in Oracle ?

Posted by FatDBA on July 17, 2022

Lately I was in discussion with one of my friend who was facing an issue with Oracle 19c database where the vendor asked him to apply a patch to fix the problem, but he did not want to apply that single patch because their Oracle homes were shared and he didn’t want to increase the complexity of their patching cycles. Then later on Oracle suggested them to try a workaround which requires a setting using fix controls.

So many times Oracle recommends to set a fix control in case of a bug fix, but what exactly are they ? Their purpose ? & tools and methods to control these bug fixes ? This post is all about explaining all of them in detail.

So, What are they ? – Fix controls are bug fix control parameters introduced in 10.2 and they are typically used to enable/disable certain bug fixes in Oracle database. You cannot pull-back any patch, the patch you trying must have the option to use _FIX_CONTROL, and must be visible under V$SYSTEM_FIX_CONTROL views.

Let’s understand this using one of the case where mview push predicate was not happening due to wrong cardinality estimate in one of the production system running on 12.1.0.2. It was rejecting join predicate pushdown (JPPD) transformations and this was avoiding view to be joined with index-based nested-loop join method and causing issues. This was happening all due to bug 21802552. Let’s check if the bug number is present in fix control views and what’s its status.

SQL> select bugno, value, description from v$system_fix_control where bugno=21802552;

     BUGNO      VALUE DESCRIPTION
---------- ---------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  21802552          1 correct cardinality adjusted by DS

-- You can get similar information using DBMS_SQLDIAG.GET_FIX_CONTROL(BUG NUMBER) proc as well.

So, its there in the view’s output and its enabled (value 1), and we can turn it off, lets do it. A proper syntax of using them is given below.

-- To enable:
"_fix_control"='Bugno:ON'    (OR)   "_fix_control"="Bugno:1"

-- To disable:
"_fix_control"='Bugno:OFF'  (OR)   "_fix_control"="Bugno:0"


SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET "_fix_control" = '21802552:OFF';

System altered.

SQL>

SQL> select bugno, value, description from v$system_fix_control where bugno=21802552;

     BUGNO      VALUE DESCRIPTION
---------- ---------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  21802552          0 correct cardinality adjusted by DS



-- same was recorded in alert log file as well

2022-07-16T09:04:02.371313-04:00
ALTER SYSTEM SET _fix_control='21802552:OFF' SCOPE=BOTH;

You can do the same using the new dbms_optim_bundle.set_fix_controls package, it was introduced in 12.1.0.2 to implement Oracle’s approach of ‘Automatic Fix Control Persistence’ framework. Let’s try to the same using said package.

-- This will set given _fix_controls in scope=BOTH on all instances
-- Lets enable it again before we disable it back again
SQL> exec dbms_optim_bundle.set_fix_controls('21802552:1','*', 'BOTH', 'NO');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> select bugno, value, description from v$system_fix_control where bugno=21802552;

     BUGNO      VALUE DESCRIPTION
---------- ---------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  21802552          1 correct cardinality adjusted by DS


-- Lets roll it back
SQL> exec dbms_optim_bundle.set_fix_controls('21802552:0','*', 'BOTH', 'NO');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> select bugno, value, description from v$system_fix_control where bugno=21802552;

     BUGNO      VALUE DESCRIPTION
---------- ---------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  21802552          0 correct cardinality adjusted by DS

--
-- Entry in parameter file made by the dbms_optim_bundle package for fix control
*._fix_control='21802552:0'#added through dbms_optim_bundle package


Hope It Helped!
Prashant Dixit

Posted in Advanced, troubleshooting | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

High stats collection time for partitioned tables after upgrade to 19c

Posted by FatDBA on July 2, 2022

Recently, while working on a database upgrade from 12c to 19c (19.15) one of my friend encountered a strange issue on the newly upgraded 19c database where the stats gathering on the full database started taking huge time. It used to take ~ 3 hours to complete the full database statistics, but the same stats collection job after the upgrade to 19c started taking close to 10 hours. The stats collection script they were using was quite simple and with minimal parameters used.

EXEC DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DATABASE_STATS(ESTIMATE_PERCENT=>DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE,degree => 8);

During the analysis he observed that the top 3-4 in-flight transactions during stats collection were related to the Index Statistics and were found doing ‘Index Fast Full Scan’, and all of them are on few of the large partitioned tables in the database. He discussed the case with me and together tried few thing i.e. recollected dictionary and fixed object statistics, did some comparative study of parameters between 12c and 19c but none of them worked. At last we tried to set debugging levels on DBMS_STATS to see what’s happening under the hood, and that gave us some hint when set it with level/flag 8 (trace index stats) and with level 32768 to trace approximate NDV (number distinct values) gatherings. Traces gave us some idea that its surely with the index stats and NDV or number of distinct keys and is taking time.

But even after that we both were totally clueless as these Tables and its dependent objects are there in the system for a very long time. So. the big question was – What’s new in 19c that has slowed down stats collection ?

Finally we decided to contact OCS! And they quickly responded to the problem as its a known problem with the 19c. As per them, there was an enhancement in 19c that is related to Index stats gathering, and that had lead to the longer stats times. It was all due to an unpublished Bug 33427856 which is an enhancement to improve the calculation of index NDK (Number of Distinct Keys). This new feature with the approx_count_distinct function and fully scans indexes to calculate NDK. This has a significant benefit because NDK is now accurate. It also means that gathering statistics can take longer (for example, updating global index statistics if incremental stats is used). So, In general, this is expected behavior, since DBMS_STATS is doing more work in 19c than it did in previously unenhanced versions.

And the solution to this new 19c index-stats feature (a problem) off by setting fix control to disable ‘Enhance Index NDK Statistics’ – 27268249

alter system set "_fix_control"='27268249:0';

And as soon as we deleted existing statistics and regather them, the time dropped drastically and got completed under 3 hours.

Hope It Helped!
Prashant Dixit

Posted in Advanced, troubleshooting | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Exceptionally high stats collection time on FIXED OBJECTS during an upgrade …

Posted by FatDBA on June 26, 2022

Someone recently asked about a situation where they were trying to upgrade their database to 19c and as a part of their upgrade plan, they were trying to run fixed object statistics but it was going on forever, and they were totally clueless why and where its taking time. This being a mandatory step, they tried several times, but same result.

About fixed object stats, It is recommended that you re-gather them if you do a major database or application upgrade, implement a new module, or make changes to the database configuration. For example if you increase the SGA size then all of the X$ tables that contain information about the buffer cache and shared pool may change significantly, such as X$ tables used in v$buffer_pool or v$shared_pool_advice.

About fixed objects stats collection idle time, I mean anything between 1-10 minutes is I will say normal and average, but anything that goes beyond 20 minutes or even more or even in hours is abnormally high and points to a situation.

So, I was asked to take a look on ad-hoc basis and during the analysis I found a SQL trying to do a count all on unified_audit_trail, and was running from the same time since they called the DBMS_STATS for FIXED OBJECTS on the database. When asked, they told me that they’d enabled auditing on the database some 6 months back and haven’t purged anything since then, the audit trail had grown behemoth and has ~ 880 Million records. I immediately offered them two approaches to handle the situation – Either lock your unified table statistics (using dbms_stats.lock_table_stats) or else take backup of the table and purge audit records before calling the stats gathering job again. They agreed with the second approach, they took backup of audit table and purged audit trail. As soon as they purged audit table, the stats collection on fixed objects got finished in ~ 3 minutes.

This was the situation and what we did …

SQL> select * from dba_audit_mgmt_last_arch_ts;

AUDIT_TRAIL RAC_INSTANCE LAST_ARCHIVE_TS
-------------------- ------------ ------------------------------
STANDARD AUDIT TRAIL 0 22-MAY-22 06.00.00.000000 AM +00:00


SQL> select count(*) from aud$;

COUNT(*)
----------
885632817

BEGIN
DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.clean_audit_trail(
audit_trail_type => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD,
use_last_arch_timestamp => FALSE);
END;
/

SQL> select count(*) from aud$;

COUNT(*)
----------
0


SQL> SET TIMING ON
SQL> BEGIN
DBMS_STATS.GATHER_FIXED_OBJECTS_STATS;
END;
/

Elapsed: 00:03:10.81

Hope It Helped!
Prashant Dixit

Posted in Advanced, troubleshooting | Tagged: , , , , | 2 Comments »

How to prioritize an Oracle Database background process ?

Posted by FatDBA on April 18, 2022

Recently while looking into a system (was running on 19.3.0.0.0 standalone) where ‘log file sync’ was bugging the database, and after we tried all other possible solutions, we thought to increase the priroty of the LGWR background process to see if that helps.

Increasing the LGWR priority is putting the LGWR process in the Round-Robin (SCHED_RR) class. You can increase process’s priority both using OS (renice, nice commands) or Database methods, but this post is about setting the priority using ‘_high_priority_process’ an undocumented/hidden parameter that prioritizes your database managed processes.

I am using Oracle 19.3 for the test where the LGWR is not by default comes with any priority in the DB, starting from 21.3.0.0.0 LGWR process is part of _high_priority_processes group along with VKTM & LMS* processes.
Note: This being a hidden/undocumented parameter I advise to consult with Oracle support before going and changing the parameter value. Try other possible ways to reduce log file sync, before jumping into this crude method of prioritizing LGWR over others.

[oracle@oracleontario ~]$ !sql
sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 19.0.0.0.0 - Production on Sun Apr 10 03:36:06 2022
Version 19.3.0.0.0

Copyright (c) 1982, 2019, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to:
Oracle Database 19c Enterprise Edition Release 19.0.0.0.0 - Production
Version 19.3.0.0.0

SQL> @hidden

Enter value for param: high_prio
old   5:    and a.ksppinm like '%&param%'
new   5:    and a.ksppinm like '%priority_processes%'

Parameter                                     Session Value             Instance Value            descr
--------------------------------------------- ------------------------- ------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------
_highest_priority_processes                   VKTM                      VKTM                      Highest Priority Process Name Mask
_high_priority_processes                      LMS*|VKTM                 LMS*|VKTM                 High Priority Process Name Mask 

And by default in Oracle version 19.3.0.0 the parameter is set to prioritize VKTM (Virtual keeper of time) and LMS (Lock Manager, a RAC process). Let me check VKTM’s current priority class, and it is set to RR class (SCHED_RR scheduling class) for the process as its defined via _high_priority_processes parameter.

[oracle@oracleontario ~]$ ps -eo pid,class,pri,nice,time,args |grep vktm
 23871 RR   41   - 00:00:53 ora_vktm_dixitdb

About the LGWR process, and it is set to TS (SCHED_OTHER) class and it has no priority class attached to it.

[oracle@oracleontario ~]$ ps -eo pid,class,pri,nice,time,args |grep ora_lg*
 23990 TS   19   0 00:00:07 ora_lgwr_dixitdb

Let’s change the priority and reboot the database to persistent the change!

SQL> alter system set "_high_priority_processes"='LMS*|VKTM|LGWR' scope=spfile;

System altered.

SQL> shut immediate
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1593831936 bytes
Fixed Size                  8897024 bytes
Variable Size            1107296256 bytes
Database Buffers          469762048 bytes
Redo Buffers                7876608 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

SQL> @hidden
Enter value for param: high_priority_processes
old   5:    and a.ksppinm like '%&param%'
new   5:    and a.ksppinm like '%high_priority_processes%'

Parameter                                     Session Value             Instance Value            descr
--------------------------------------------- ------------------------- ------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------
_high_priority_processes                      LMS*|VKTM|LGWR            LMS*|VKTM|LGWR            High Priority Process Name Mask

At the same time I can see the same was logged into the Alert log file.

2022-04-10T03:54:31.488732-04:00
LGWR started with pid=8, OS id=26058 at elevated (RT) priority

So, we have reniced the priority of LGWR on the system, I mean the higher value of priority actually makes the process lower priority; it means the process demands fewer system resources (and therefore is a “nicer” process). Now lets check the scheduling class of the process at the OS, it should be now changed to RR from TS.

SQL> !ps -eo pid,class,pri,nice,time,args |grep ora_lm*
 26058 RR   41   - 00:00:00 ora_lgwr_dixitdb

Let me check at the OS Level what has changed now.

[oracle@oracleontario 26058]$ pwd
/proc/26058
[oracle@oracleontario 26058]$ more sched
ora_lgwr_dixitd (26058, #threads: 1)
-------------------------------------------------------------------
se.exec_start                                :      26820431.663015
se.vruntime                                  :            -2.963799
se.sum_exec_runtime                          :          1858.211503
se.nr_migrations                             :                    0
nr_switches                                  :                 4038
nr_voluntary_switches                        :                 4023
nr_involuntary_switches                      :                   15
se.load.weight                               :                 1024
policy                                       :                    2      -----> Policy, the 0-99 are real-time priorities
prio                                         :                   98
clock-delta                                  :                   59
mm->numa_scan_seq                            :                    0
numa_migrations, 0
numa_faults_memory, 0, 0, 1, 0, -1
numa_faults_memory, 1, 0, 0, 0, -1


-- output from top utility
top - 05:09:14 up  7:32,  3 users,  load average: 0.14, 0.10, 0.11
Tasks:   2 total,   0 running,   2 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
%Cpu(s):  0.0 us,  0.0 sy,  0.0 ni,100.0 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
GiB Mem :      4.3 total,      0.0 free,      1.1 used,      3.1 buff/cache
GiB Swap:      3.9 total,      3.9 free,      0.0 used.      2.1 avail Mem

   PID USER      PR  NI    VIRT    RES    SHR S %CPU %MEM     TIME+ COMMAND
 26027 oracle    -2   0 2016104  20096  17064 S  1.7  0.4   1:28.22 ora_vktm_dixitdb      ---> Look at the PR (priority) column with value -2 (higher pri)
 26058 oracle    -2   0 2017136  30360  26768 S  0.0  0.7   0:01.86 ora_lgwr_dixitdb      ---> Look at the PR (priority) column with value -2 (higher pri)

So, when nothing was working for us, this workaround helped and we were able to reduce LFS waits by more than 80% …

Hope It Helped!
Prashant Dixit

Posted in Advanced, troubleshooting | Tagged: , , , | 2 Comments »

Demystifying OUTLINE DATA in an Execution Plan …

Posted by FatDBA on March 7, 2022

‘Outline Data’ section displays the list of hints that would be needed to replicate the execution plan, even if the statistics change., but in case of a complex execution plans it comes with lot of strange looking and obscure terms used. As there isn’t any published explanation of stored outline hints, so today’s post is to decipher few of the terms that you see in an outline data of an execution plan.

If you want to read more about outlines, what are they, their purpose, please read my previous post on the same subject at –> https://fatdba.com/2017/11/30/how-to-fix-sql-plan-issues-using-outline-data/

Okay, coming back to the post, let me quickly generate the outline data for one of the test SQL and will try to explain about each of the hints, query blocks, aliases and other representations used.

SQL>
SQL> explain plan for 
SELECT d.department_name,e.employee_name
FROM departments d
LEFT OUTER JOIN employees e ON d.department_id = e.department_id
WHERE d.department_id >= 30
ORDER BY d.department_name, e.employee_name;  

Explained.

SQL> select * from table(dbms_xplan.display('PLAN_TABLE',NULL,'+alias +outline'));

PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 3871261979
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation           | Name        | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT    |             |     4 |   168 |     7  (15)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  SORT ORDER BY      |             |     4 |   168 |     7  (15)| 00:00:01 |
|*  2 |   HASH JOIN OUTER   |             |     4 |   168 |     6   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  3 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL| DEPARTMENTS |     2 |    44 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  4 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL| EMPLOYEES   |     6 |   120 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Query Block Name / Object Alias (identified by operation id):
-------------------------------------------------------------
   1 - SEL$2BFA4EE4
   3 - SEL$2BFA4EE4 / D@SEL$1
   4 - SEL$2BFA4EE4 / E@SEL$1

Outline Data
-------------
  /*+
      BEGIN_OUTLINE_DATA
      USE_HASH(@"SEL$2BFA4EE4" "E"@"SEL$1")
      LEADING(@"SEL$2BFA4EE4" "D"@"SEL$1" "E"@"SEL$1")
      FULL(@"SEL$2BFA4EE4" "E"@"SEL$1")
      FULL(@"SEL$2BFA4EE4" "D"@"SEL$1")
      OUTLINE(@"SEL$1")
      OUTLINE(@"SEL$2")
      ANSI_REARCH(@"SEL$1")
      OUTLINE(@"SEL$8812AA4E")
      ANSI_REARCH(@"SEL$2")
      OUTLINE(@"SEL$948754D7")
      MERGE(@"SEL$8812AA4E" >"SEL$948754D7")
      OUTLINE_LEAF(@"SEL$2BFA4EE4")
      ALL_ROWS
      DB_VERSION('19.1.0')
      OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE('19.1.0')
      IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS
      END_OUTLINE_DATA
  */

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   2 - access("D"."DEPARTMENT_ID"="E"."DEPARTMENT_ID"(+))
   3 - filter("D"."DEPARTMENT_ID">=30)
   4 - filter("E"."DEPARTMENT_ID"(+)>=30)

As per the above outline data captured for the execution plan, the very first entry is USE_HASH(@”SEL$2BFA4EE4″ “E”@”SEL$1”) This represents the use of HASH join methods used in the query. Other join method outline options you might see are USE_NL and USE_MERGE. Here in our example we’ve used the LEFT OUTER JOIN which will return all valid rows from the table on the left side of the JOIN keyword, that’s table EMPLOYEE (alias ‘E’) along with the values from the table on the right side.

i.e LEFT OUTER JOIN employees e ON d.department_id = e.department_id

LEADING(@”SEL$2BFA4EE4″ “D”@”SEL$1” “E”@”SEL$1”) The LEADING hints specifies the exact join order for the SQL that is followed by the optimizer in the plan. It displays the join order as an ordered list of table aliases and query block names. The aliases appears in the ordering in which we access those tables in the query.

The first part of the hint @”SEL$2BFA4EE4″ represents the main SELECT block and if you closely see the full hint definition you will see “D”@”SEL$1”, where “SEL$1” is the query block name for table alias ‘D’ for Department table, which is followed by “E”@”SEL$1”, that represents query block name “SEL$1” on second table joined ‘E’ for Employee table.

FULL(@”SEL$2BFA4EE4″ “E”@”SEL$1”) & FULL(@”SEL$2BFA4EE4″ “D”@”SEL$1”) are what you see next and these two hints for FULL TABLE SCANS on table alias “E”, that is EMPLOYEE table, followed by FTS on table alias “D”, that is DEPARTMENT table. Same you can see in the execution plan too.

OUTLINE(@”SEL$1″) & OUTLINE(@”SEL$2″) These two OUTLINE hints correspond to initial and the intermediate query blocks.

ANSI_REARCH(@”SEL$1″) This is the hint that instructs the optimizer to re-architecture of ANSI left, right, and full outer joins. In our case this was to re-arch the left outer join.

MERGE(@”SEL$8812AA4E” >”SEL$948754D7″) is the MERGE query block hint. SEL$8812AA4E and SEL$948754D7 are the transformed query blocks.

OUTLINE_LEAF(@”SEL$2BFA4EE4″) This hint builds an outline leaf for the specified query block. In our example it represents that the query block SEL$2BFA4EE4 is a “final” query block that has actually been subject to independent optimization. Outline leaf cannot be transformed. You can see multiple outline_leaf hints for the query blocks.

IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS is a special hint instructs the CBO to ignore most of all the other supplied hints.

ALL_ROWS This hint instructs to optimize the query/statement block for best throughput with lowest resource utilization.

DB_VERSION(‘19.1.0’) & OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE(‘19.1.0’) these two hints allows for the CBO to process the SQL on the said version of the database, 19.1.0 in our case.

Few others that you might see in OUTLINE DATA sections and are easy to decipher are INDEX_RS_ASC (Index Range Scan in ascending order) and it happens when the INDEX RANGE SCAN is used as an access path/method in SQL execution plan. Few others that you can see in case of Nested Loop Joins are NLJ_BATCHING which happens when Oracle batches multiple physical I/O requests and process them using a vector I/O (array) instead of processing them one at a time, and batching improves performance because it uses asynchronous reads..
Few others that you can see in case of NL’s are USE_NL, NLJ_PREFETCH etc.

INDEX_FFS in case of Index Fast Full Scans and the list is long …

Hope It Helped!
Prashant Dixit

Posted in Advanced, troubleshooting | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

Script to display latency wait times using DBA_HIST_EVENT_HISTOGRAM using Heat Maps

Posted by FatDBA on March 2, 2022

Today’s post if about a brilliant tool/script that I frequently use to get the outputs/graphs for customer meetings, presentations and for quick analysis of any performance problem …

This is one of the awesome Oracle provided tool/script that generates a heat map of latency times for a given wait event. The script takes the output from DBA_HIST_EVENT_HISTOGRAM and produces a heat map and a JPG version of the heat map is also produced representing the wait time latency for the given wait event over a specific time frame identified by range of snapshots.

Source : Script to Display Latency Wait Time From DBA_HIST_EVENT_HISTOGRAM Using Heat Map (Doc ID 1931492.1)

Note: This script queries ASH views, specially DBA_HIST_EVENT_HISTOGRAM which requires license as its part of the Diagnostics Pack on Oracle EE

The scripts takes the following input parameters:

  • Snapshot id range (first snapshot id and last snapshot id)
  • Database id
  • Instance number
  • Exact name of wait event
perl ./lhm.pl --begin [first snapid] --end [last snapid] --dbid [database id] --instance [instance num] --wait_event "wait event"

perl ./lhm.pl  --dbid 1266075800 --begin 19907 --end 19991 --event "log file parallel write" --instance 4


-- Example Output
database id:     1266075800
wait event:      log file parallel write
Matrix:          [26x85]
snap range:      [19907:19991]
instance id:     4
jpg file   :     latency_log_file_parallel_write.jpg

Hope It Helped!
Prashant Dixit

Posted in Advanced, troubleshooting | Tagged: , , , , , | 1 Comment »

A stubborn after upgrade issue, and how I handled it!

Posted by FatDBA on February 16, 2022

Writing this one from the misty mountains .. 🙂

Recently I had to part-time support a system where customer reported slowness issues with few of the critical SQLs which uses few IN-Memory tables and were impacted exactly since they moved from Oracle 12.1 to 12.2. We tried few things but none of them worked, and with that I started suspecting if the change in CBO version from 12.1 to 12.2 the reason behind those problems with SQLs.

So, today’s post will give you some idea about such scenarios when you’re not sure about the things that broke the performance after the upgrade, and you have to do the try and error approach to find out the cause. So, I decided to give it a try with one of those SQLs to set the OFE (Optimizer Feature Enable) to earlier DB version 12.1 and verify query performance. So I started my test with the optimizer_features_enable parameter to set it to the older version.

SQL> alter session set optimizer_features_enable='12.1.0.2';

And the query ran fine, At this stage we had some sort of understanding of the problem as it was clear that some changes in 12.2 that has trigger this problem. But now I have to identify among all those hidden/underscore parameters and fix control’s that one final parameter which is influencing the optimizer for that odd behavior. So, I started something like this …
We extract all the fixes and underscore parameters introduced in oracle 12.2 and I started with the hidden Parameters followed by Fix Control settings in 12.2.0.1 Optimizer environment to come to 12.1.0.2 OFE level

-- Hidden parameters added into Oracle version 12.2 
-- Setting them back to Oracle version 12.1 
alter session set "_optimizer_undo_cost_change"="12.1.0.2";
alter session set "_optimizer_cbqt_or_expansion"=off;
alter session set "_optimizer_ads_use_partial_results"=false;
alter session set "_query_rewrite_use_on_query_computation"=false;
alter session set "_px_scalable_invdist_mcol"=false;
alter session set "_optimizer_eliminate_subquery"=false;
alter session set "_sqlexec_hash_based_distagg_ssf_enabled"=false;
alter session set "_optimizer_union_all_gsets"=false;
alter session set "_optimizer_enhanced_join_elimination"=false;
alter session set "_optimizer_multicol_join_elimination"=false;
alter session set "_key_vector_create_pushdown_threshold"=0;
alter session set "_optimizer_enable_plsql_stats"=false;
alter session set "_recursive_with_parallel"=false;
alter session set "_recursive_with_branch_iterations"=1;
alter session set "_px_dist_agg_partial_rollup_pushdown"=off;
alter session set "_optimizer_key_vector_pruning_enabled"=false;
alter session set "_pwise_distinct_enabled"=false;
alter session set "_vector_encoding_mode"=off;
alter session set "_ds_xt_split_count"=0;
alter session set "_ds_sampling_method"=NO_QUALITY_METRIC;
alter session set "_optimizer_ads_use_spd_cache"=false;
alter session set "_optimizer_use_table_scanrate"=OFF;
alter session set "_optimizer_use_xt_rowid"=false;
alter session set "_xt_sampling_scan_granules"=off;
alter session set "_optimizer_band_join_aware"=false;
alter session set "_optimizer_vector_base_dim_fact_factor"=0;
alter session set "_ds_enable_view_sampling"=false;
alter session set "_optimizer_inmemory_use_stored_stats"=NEVER;
alter session set "_mv_access_compute_fresh_data"=off;
alter session set "_bloom_filter_ratio"=30;
alter session set "_optimizer_control_shard_qry_processing"=65535;
alter session set "_optimizer_interleave_or_expansion"=false;

Placed all above underscore parameters with the query and ran it again and observed the benefits (make sure to flush the previous plans from the shared pool). In my case this actually worked, but question was which underscore parameter helped. Do same with all fixes (controls).

-- Fix Controls added in Oracle version 12.2 
-- Setting them back to Oracle version 12.1 
alter session set "_fix_control"="16515789:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="17491018:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="17986549:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18115594:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18182018:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18302923:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18377553:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="5677419:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18134680:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18636079:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18415557:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18385778:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18308329:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="17973658:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18558952:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18874242:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18765574:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18952882:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18924221:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18422714:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18798414:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18969167:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19055664:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18898582:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18960760:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19070454:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19230097:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19063497:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19046459:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19269482:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18876528:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19227996:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18864613:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19239478:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19451895:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18907390:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19025959:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="16774698:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19475484:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19287919:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19386746:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19774486:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18671960:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19484911:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19731940:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19604408:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="14402409:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="16486095:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19563657:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19632232:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19889960:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="17208933:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19710102:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18697515:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18318631:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20078639:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19503668:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20124288:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19847091:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="12618642:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19779920:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20186282:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20186295:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20265690:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="16047938:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19507904:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18915345:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20329321:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20225191:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18776755:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19882842:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20010996:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20379571:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20129763:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19899588:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="10098852:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19663421:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20465582:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="16732417:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20732410:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20289688:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20543684:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20506136:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20830312:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19768896:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19814541:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="17443547:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19123152:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19899833:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20754928:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20808265:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20808192:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20340595:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="18949550:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="14775297:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="17497847:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20232513:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20587527:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19186783:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="19653920:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21211786:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21057343:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21503478:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21476032:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20859246:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21639419:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20951803:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21683982:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20216500:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20906162:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20854798:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21509656:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21833220:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21802552:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21452843:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21800590:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21273039:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="16750133:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22013607:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22152372:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22077191:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22123025:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="16913734:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="8357294:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21979983:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22158526:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21971099:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22090662:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21300129:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21339278:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20270511:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21424812:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22114090:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22159570:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22272439:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22372694:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22514195:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22520315:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22649054:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="8617254:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22020067:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22864730:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21099502:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22904304:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22967807:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22879002:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23019286:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22760704:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="20853506:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22513493:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22518491:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23103096:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22143411:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23180670:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23002609:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23210039:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23102649:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23071621:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23136865:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23176721:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23223113:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22258300:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22205301:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23556483:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="21305617:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22533539:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23596611:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="22937293:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="23565188:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="24654471:0";
alter session set "_fix_control"="24845754:0";
ALTER session set "_fix_control"='5483301:OFF;

In my case none of fix control gives any benefits. This was now clear there was some feature in 12.2 which when disabled in the form of underscore parameter helped to get us back to previous state. But the problem is, they are total 32 different parameters, so I thought to divide the parameter list into half and execute the query after setting first half parameters and see if I get the correct result, if not then tried again setting next half parameter list and executed the query.
And with that trial and error approach, I was able to reach that one parameter which caused issues with those set of SQLs. It was ‘_optimizer_inmemory_use_stored_stats‘ which was causing issues with those IN-Memory tables references by those SQLs, as the optimizer NEVER uses the stored statistics for in-memory tables in 12.1, but the same parameter in 12.2 is with default value of AUTO and that causes the issue.

Hope It Helped!
Prashant Dixit

Posted in Advanced, troubleshooting | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Part 4 : How to generate an AWR report for a Data Guard physical standby database ?

Posted by FatDBA on February 7, 2022

Recently I was asked to test performance of an Active Dataguard or Physical standby database where the DWH/reporting type SELECT workload was running, and slowness was reported by the user. In order to understand the system better its always good to generate the AWR reports, but this being the standby database which is opened in READ ONLY mode, means you cannot directly call the AWR report related scripts on the standby as they will fail with the error ‘database opened in read only’ mode.

This post is all about enabling AWR reporting’s in the standby database. I am doing this test on 12.2.0.1.0 ADG.

About test databases, we have the primary (TESLPH) is opened in Read Write mode and the standby (TESLPRBH) in Read Only Mode With real time Apply.

SQL> select db_unique_name,open_mode, database_role from v$database;

DB_UNIQUE_NAME                 OPEN_MODE            DATABASE_ROLE
------------------------------ -------------------- ----------------
TESLPH                         READ WRITE           PRIMARY


SQL> select db_unique_name,open_mode, database_role from v$database;

DB_UNIQUE_NAME                 OPEN_MODE            DATABASE_ROLE
------------------------------ -------------------- ----------------
TESLPRBH                       READ ONLY WITH APPLY PHYSICAL STANDBY

Next, you have to enable the SYS$UMF account. The RMF is used for collecting performance statistics for an Oracle Database. The SYS$UMF user is the default database user that has all the privileges to access the system-level RMF views and tables. All the AWR related operations in RMF can be performed only by the SYS$UMF user. The SYS$UMF user is locked by default and it must be unlocked before deploying the RMF topology. You need to provide password for the SYS$UMF user when creating database links in the RMF topology. If the password for the SYS$UMF user is changed, all the database links in the RMF topology must be recreated.

Next you have to make sure if the “_umf_remote_enabled” underscore parameter is set to TRUE else you will receieve “ORA-20501: Remote UMF is disabled” when doing any UMF related operation on the database.

-- On both PRIMARY and STANDBY Databases.
SQL> select username,common,account_status from dba_users where username ='SYS$UMF';

USERNAME        COM ACCOUNT_STATUS
--------------- --- --------------------------------
SYS$UMF         YES OPEN

-- On both PRIMARY and STANDBY Databases.
SQL> alter system set "_umf_remote_enabled"=TRUE scope=BOTH;

System altered.

Next you need to create two database links for ‘primary to the standby‘ and ‘standby to the primary’ communication using SYS$UMF and DB UNIQUE NAME of the databases. Will test the connectivity of both of them to see if they are working okay.

-- On PRIMARY database.
SQL> CREATE DATABASE LINK "PRIMARY_TO_STANDBY_DBLINK" CONNECT TO "SYS$UMF" IDENTIFIED BY VALUES 'oracle90' USING 'TESLPRBH';

Database link created.

SQL> CREATE DATABASE LINK "STANDBY_TO_PRIMARY_DBLINK" CONNECT TO "SYS$UMF" IDENTIFIED BY VALUES 'oracle90' USING 'TESLPH';

Database link created.


SQL> select db_link, username, host from dba_db_links

DB_LINK                        USERNAME        HOST
------------------------------ --------------- ----------------------------------------
STANDBY_TO_PRIMARY_DBLINK      SYS$UMF         TESLPH
PRIMARY_TO_STANDBY_DBLINK      SYS$UMF         TESLPRBH


SQL> select db_unique_name from v$database@STANDBY_TO_PRIMARY_DBLINK;

DB_UNIQUE_NAME
------------------------------
TESLPH

1 row selected.


SQL> select db_unique_name from v$database@PRIMARY_TO_STANDBY_DBLINK;

DB_UNIQUE_NAME
------------------------------
TESLPRBH

1 row selected.


-- On PRIMARY database.
SQL> CREATE DATABASE LINK "PRIMARY_TO_STANDBY_DBLINK" CONNECT TO "SYS$UMF" IDENTIFIED BY VALUES 'oracle90' USING 'TESLPRBH';

Database link created.

SQL> CREATE DATABASE LINK "STANDBY_TO_PRIMARY_DBLINK" CONNECT TO "SYS$UMF" IDENTIFIED BY VALUES 'oracle90' USING 'TESLPH';

Database link created.


SQL> select db_link, username, host from dba_db_links

DB_LINK                        USERNAME        HOST
------------------------------ --------------- ----------------------------------------
STANDBY_TO_PRIMARY_DBLINK      SYS$UMF         TESLPH
PRIMARY_TO_STANDBY_DBLINK      SYS$UMF         TESLPRBH

-- Lets try the connectivity using DB Links that we have created
SQL> select db_unique_name from v$database@STANDBY_TO_PRIMARY_DBLINK;

DB_UNIQUE_NAME
------------------------------
TESLPH

1 row selected.


SQL> select db_unique_name from v$database@PRIMARY_TO_STANDBY_DBLINK;

DB_UNIQUE_NAME
------------------------------
TESLPRBH

1 row selected.

Next we have to add the primary database node to the UMF repository, for that you have to run below command on both the primary & standby databases.

I am assigning primary site name as –> ‘primary_site’
and standby database site name as –> ‘standby_site’

-- On PRIMARY database
SQL> exec dbms_umf.configure_node ('primary_site');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL>


-- On STANDBY database.
SQL> exec dbms_umf.configure_node('standby_site','STANDBY_TO_PRIMARY_DBLINK');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL>

-- Use in case want to UNCONFIGURE the node.
SQL> exec DBMS_UMF.UNCONFIGURE_NODE;

Next we need to create the UMF topology, I am creating it as ‘Topology_1‘ on primary database. You can only have a single UMF topology in the database, if you try to create more you will get “ORA-20506: Maximum number of topologies exceeded”

-- On PRIMARY Database
SQL> exec DBMS_UMF.create_topology ('Topology_1');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

-- Lets query if the toplogy is created with no errors and is ACTIVE.
SQL> select * from dba_umf_topology;

TOPOLOGY_NAME                   TARGET_ID TOPOLOGY_VERSION TOPOLOGY
------------------------------ ---------- ---------------- --------
Topology_1                     1530523744                1 ACTIVE

1 row selected.

SQL> select * from dba_umf_registration;

TOPOLOGY_NAME                  NODE_NAME                         NODE_ID  NODE_TYPE AS_SO AS_CA STATE
------------------------------ ------------------------------ ---------- ---------- ----- ----- --------------------
Topology_1                     primary_site                      1530523744          0 FALSE FALSE OK

1 row selected.

-- Run in case want to DROP the topology
SQL>  exec DBMS_UMF.drop_topology('NAME-OF-TOPOLOGY');

Next you have to add the standby node to the topology, for that you need to use register_node procedure and need to mention both of the DBLinks that we have created earlier. This you have to run on PRIMARY node.

-- On PRIMARY database
SQL> exec DBMS_UMF.register_node ('Topology_1', 'standby_site', 'PRIMARY_TO_STANDBY_DBLINK', 'STANDBY_TO_PRIMARY_DBLINK', 'FALSE', 'FALSE');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


SQL> select * from dba_umf_registration;

TOPOLOGY_NAME                  NODE_NAME                         NODE_ID  NODE_TYPE AS_SO AS_CA STATE
------------------------------ ------------------------------ ---------- ---------- ----- ----- --------------------
Topology_1                     primary_site                      1530523744          0 FALSE FALSE OK
Topology_1                     standby_site                      3265600723          0 FALSE FALSE OK

2 rows selected.

SQL>

Now when both of the nodes ‘primary_site‘ and ‘standby_site‘ are added to the topology, we have to register the standby node for the AWR service.

-- On PRIMARY database.
SQL> exec DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.register_remote_database(node_name=>'standby_site');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> 

SQL> select * from dba_umf_service;

TOPOLOGY_NAME                     NODE_ID SERVICE
------------------------------ ---------- -------
Topology_1                     3265600723 AWR

1 row selected.


SQL> select * from dba_umf_link;

TOPOLOGY_NAME                  FROM_NODE_ID TO_NODE_ID LINK_NAME
------------------------------ ------------ ---------- ------------------------------
Topology_1                       1530523744 3265600723 PRIMARY_TO_STANDBY_DBLINK
Topology_1                       3265600723 1530523744 STANDBY_TO_PRIMARY_DBLINK

2 rows selected.

Now everything is set, no errors and we are all good to create some manual snaps. Let’s generate some remote snapshots, for that you have to run below command from PRIMARY database.

-- On PRIMARY database.
SQL>
SQL> alter system archive log current;

System altered.

SQL> exec dbms_workload_repository.create_remote_snapshot('standby_site');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_workload_repository.create_remote_snapshot('standby_site');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_workload_repository.create_remote_snapshot('standby_site');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_workload_repository.create_remote_snapshot('standby_site');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_workload_repository.create_remote_snapshot('standby_site');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec dbms_workload_repository.create_remote_snapshot('standby_site');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Now time to call the AWR report base scripts to generate the AWR reports for the standby database, you can call them on either Primary of the Standby server. For example, below I called the AWR report from the primary database and passed DBID and instance number of the standby database and have got the report for the standby database.

SQL> SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/awrrpti.sql

Specify the Report Type
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Enter value for report_type: text
Type Specified: text

Instances in this Workload Repository schema
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  DB Id      Inst Num   DB Name      Instance     Host
------------ ---------- ---------    ----------   ------
  4265600723     1      TESLPRBH     TESLPRBH     monkey02lx031
* 5576289360     1      TESLPRBH     TESLPH       monkey1903nm12

Enter value for dbid: 4265600723
Using 4265600723 for database Id
Enter value for inst_num: 1
Using 1 for instance number


Specify the number of days of snapshots to choose from
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Enter value for num_days: 1

Listing the last day's Completed Snapshots
Instance     DB Name      Snap Id       Snap Started    Snap Level
------------ ------------ ---------- ------------------ ----------

TESLPRBH     TESLPRBH             1  13 Jan 2022 04:10    1
                                  2  13 Jan 2022 04:11    1
                                  3  13 Jan 2022 04:14    1
                                  4  13 Jan 2022 04:14    1
                                  5  13 Jan 2022 04:14    1
                                  6  13 Jan 2022 04:15    1
                                  7  13 Jan 2022 04:15    1
                                  8  13 Jan 2022 04:17    1
                                  9  13 Jan 2022 04:18    1
                                 10  13 Jan 2022 04:18    1
                                 11  13 Jan 2022 04:18    1
                                 12  13 Jan 2022 04:18    1


Specify the Begin and End Snapshot Ids
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Enter value for begin_snap:



WORKLOAD REPOSITORY report for

DB Name         DB Id    Unique Name DB Role          Edition Release    RAC CDB
------------ ----------- ----------- ---------------- ------- ---------- --- ---
TESLPRBH      4265600723 TESLPRBH    PHYSICAL STANDBY EE      12.2.0.1.0 NO  NO

Instance     Inst Num Startup Time
------------ -------- ---------------
TESLPRBH            1 13-Feb-21 05:16

Host Name        Platform                         CPUs Cores Sockets Memory(GB)
---------------- -------------------------------- ---- ----- ------- ----------
monkey02lx0315b   Linux x86 64-bit                    4     4       4      15.49

              Snap Id      Snap Time      Sessions Curs/Sess
            --------- ------------------- -------- ---------
Begin Snap:         1 13-Jan-22 04:10:57        61        .5
  End Snap:        12 13-Jan-22 04:18:27        60        .6
   Elapsed:                7.50 (mins)
   DB Time:                0.73 (mins)

Load Profile                    Per Second   Per Transaction  Per Exec  Per Call
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~            ---------------   --------------- --------- ---------
             DB Time(s):               0.1              44.1      0.00      0.01
              DB CPU(s):               0.1              24.1      0.00      0.01
      Background CPU(s):               0.0              14.2      0.00      0.00
      Redo size (bytes):               0.0               0.0
  Logical read (blocks):           1,227.7         552,449.0
          Block changes:               7.7           3,465.0
 Physical read (blocks):             594.5         267,510.0
Physical write (blocks):              44.1          19,821.0
       Read IO requests:              16.6           7,466.0
.......
................
.......................

Hope It Helped!
Prashant Dixit

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